"Fracking" is controversial because it involves using high-volumes of water mixed with sand and chemicals to release oil and gas deep underground.
Advocates of Illinois' new law says it's chock full of environmental safeguards.
That means a lot of paperwork, and regulations. Like a requirement that any driller wanting to "frack" first register with the state.
"Registration in a nutshell would be a profile of a company, a snapshot of a company, making sure that they, yes - we do have insurance, if we have any violations…"
That's Department of Natural Resources spokesman Chris McCloud, who says that's different than getting a permit.
"The permit would be the more technical aspects of: here's what we want to do, here's where we want to do it, here's how far we're going to drill."
McCloud says it'll be months before DNR accepts permits; he says the state is still working on a draft of rules that will be submitted for public comment and need a legislative panel's sign-off.