The price of copper remains at near historic highs, and that means so, too, does the amount of copper getting stolen.
Everything from telephone wire to plumbing is a target, and lawmakers in nearly half the states are considering legislation aimed at making it harder for thieves to sell the stolen metal.
James City County in southeastern Virginia has seen a spate of recent copper thefts. Maj. Steve Rubino with the county police department says there have been six major incidents since January.
With thousands of dollars at stake, Rubino says, thieves are taking risks. One of the targets, for example, was a power substation at the end of a remote road.
"Even though it says 'High voltage, may cause injury or death,' obviously they were not concerned with that," Rubino says.
Police say the thieves who robbed this substation may be responsible for another theft of copper out of air-conditioning units and heat pumps at an office park 10 miles away — and a theft across town at a used car lot. "We've had somebody cut a hole in that fence and then go in and remove radiators from some cars, and catalytic converters," Rubino says.
The thefts in James City County range from $500 to $8,000 since the beginning of this year.
The Trouble With Tracking
For police, there's another challenge. Once the copper is stolen, it's nearly impossible to track it down.
"They're stealing it to bring it someplace where it's melted down. It's not like stealing a TV where there's a serial number, or a car where there's a VIN number and can easily be traced," Rubino says.
It's like this all over the country, and states are responding. Since January, 49 bills have been introduced in 23 states. Many of them involve just that problem — tracking the sale of used copper.
In Ohio, one bill would prohibit scrap dealers from buying copper plumbing pipe from anyone other than a plumber. Many of the bills would make scrap dealers take pictures of copper items and document them. Others would impose a waiting period before dealers could sell the copper.
Just last month, Virginia passed a law that requires scrap dealers to keep photos of metal they purchase on hand for at least a month.
Even Congress has stepped in. Sen. Amy Klobuchar, a Minnesota Democrat, is proposing new legislation that would make stealing copper in some cases a federal crime and would increase regulations on buying and selling it.
"I don't think people realize what a problem this crime is. It has jumped more than 80 percent in recent years," Klobuchar says.
"We have places in Minnesota that have been broken into multiple times, many of them in rural areas," she says. "Someone stole 200 Bronze Stars [grave markers] off of veterans' graves."
Police, she says, need more help. "Our laws have to be as sophisticated as the crooks that are breaking them," she says.
At The Scrap Yard
At Old Dominion Metals about 30 miles away from James City County, owners John Hund and his father, Tim, bought about 25 million pounds of scrap metal last year.
The Hunds say they know that some of the copper they buy may be stolen — in fact, sometimes they've called the police on suspicious customers.
As for the proposed waiting period, Hund calls it "absolutely ridiculous."
He waves at huge mounds of aluminum cans, copper, old air conditioners and car parts in his scrap metal yard.
"What you're seeing here ... that's just stuff that has come in today, so a) you would not have the room to store everything, and b) you'd have to have some pretty deep pockets to shell out $250,000 worth of metal and not get paid for it that long," he says.
There's no question that the proposed regulations will add new burdens and costs for recyclers like the Hunds. But lawmakers and police say they need to balance other concerns — like the damage copper theft is causing to infrastructure and the hundreds of millions of dollars these crimes are costing victims. They say the single best place to catch thieves is at the scrap yard.